Mi • dah [me-DUH]pl. Mi • dot [me-DOTE]  Noun

Hebrew  [מִדָּה/מִדּוֹת]

1.  Lit. 'measure, capacity'

2.  Character quality; soul trait

3.  Divine attribute/s

4.  Value/s (spec. Jewish)

48 Mussar Middot (מ״ח מוּסָר מִדּוֹת)

Why is this list of Middot different from all other lists? It's the biggest and most detailed list available - giving three English words per middah to deliver the fullest sense; explaining verbal roots and literal meanings; and listing similar middot in (parentheses) and opposites in [brackets]. It's also the only list to comprehensively incorporate the Kabbalistic Sephirot, Big Five personality traits, and Jungian cognitive functions/MBTI.

Note that transliterations are standard but for the sake of beginner-friendliness pronunciations are written as most commonly spelled in English (for instance, KAL is written CALL). Note also that ideally each middah and its opposite are neutral in their purest forms but this neutrality is often lost through translation and interpretation. For this reason no Hebrew/English listing of Middot is perfect; we present this as a work in progress and invite your input here.

This list is also available as a nine-page printable PDF. See also the simplified list of 48 Middot without synonyms/antonyms etc. along with a one-page printable PDF. See also the list of the 48 Steps to Torah listed in Pirkei Avot 6:6. Permission to freely use this list is given with the request that you cite/link to the Mussar Center and donate to keep us going.

1.   AWE   Yira (year-AH)   יִרְאָה

Awe, reverence, fear

(פְּלִיאָה Plia, PLEE-ah: Wonder, amazement)

(כּוֹבֶד רֹאשׁ Koved Rosh, KO-ved roshe: Seriousness, solemnity, gravitas)

[קַלוּת רֹאשׁ Kalut Rosh, CALL-oot roshe: Disregard, levity, flippancy; literally "light-headedness"]

2.   BALANCE   Izun (ee-ZOON)   אִזוּן

Balance, poise, moderation

(דֶּרֶךְ הָאֶמְצָעִית Derech Ha'Emtzait, DARE-ech ha-em-tsah-EET: the middle path/way/course)

[קִצוֹנִיוּת Kitzoniut, keets-own-ee-OOT: Extremism, going to either end of a spectrum]

3.   BEAUTY  Tiferet (tee-FAIR-et)   תִפאֶרֶת

Beauty, harmony, balance

Sixth Sefirah: Reconciliation, synthesis, integration; the Heart (between Chesed & Gevurah)

[כְּפִישָׁה Kefisha, k-fee-SHAH: Uneven, asymmetrical, divided]

[מְרִיבָה Meriva, mree-VAH: Conflict, rivalry, division]

4.   BROTHERHOOD   Achava (ach-ah-VAH)   אַחֲוָה

Brotherhood, familiarity, belonging

(חֲבֵרוּת Chaverut, chav-air-OOT: Partnership, camaraderie)

(אַחְדוּת Achdut, ach-DOOT: Unity, solidarity, togetherness)

[זָרוּת Zarut, zarr-OOT: To be unfamiliar, foreign, an outsider]

5.   CAREFULNESS   Zehirut (zeer-OOT)   זְהִירוּת

Carefulness, deliberation, caution; related to אַזְהָרָה warning

(עֵרָנוּת Eranut, air-ah-NOOT: Alert, watchful, vigilant; literally to "stay awake")

[פְּזִיזוּת Pezizut, p-zee-ZOOT: Spontaneous, impulsive, reckless]

6.   CLARITY   Tohar (TOE-har)   טֹהַר

Clarity, lucidity, purity; also טָהֲרָה Tahara 

(נְקִיּוּת Nekiyut, nicky-OOT: Cleanliness)

(זְכוּת Zechut, zuh-CHOOT: merit, right, privelege; from זכה clear, transparent, innocent)

[תַאֲוָה Ta'avah, tah-ah-VAH: Desire, craving, lust]

7.   COMPASSION   Rachamim (raw-chuh-MEEM)   רַחֲמִים

Compassion, sympathy, empathy; related to רֶחֶם womb; cognitive function = personal feeling

[אַכְזָרִיוּת Achzariyut, ach-zarr-ee-OOT: Cold, cruel, ruthless]

8.   CONSCIENCE   Busha (boo-SHAH)   בּוּשָׁה

Conscience, moral sensitivity, embarassment (literally "shame")

(חֲרָטָה Charata, char-ah-TAH: Regret, remorse, sorry)

[עַזּוּת Azut, ah-ZOOT: Fierce, unfeeling, brazen]

9.   CONSIDERATION   Adivut (ah-dee-VOOT)   אֲדִיבוּת

Consideration, thoughtfulness, courtesy

(דֶּרֶךְ אֶרֶץ Derech Eretz, DARE-ech AIR-ets: Politeness, manners, tact; literally "the way of the land")

[גַסוּת Gasut, gah-SOOT: Rough, rude, coarse; also גַּס לֵב/דַּעַת/רוּחַ - literally a "large (i.e. bulky or clumsy) heart/mind/spirit"]

10.   CONTENTMENT   Histapkut (he-stop-KOOT)   הִסתַפְּקוּת

Contentment, simplicity, moderation; from ספק to divide/apportion

(נַחַת Nachat, NAH-chat: Satisfaction, gratification, comfort)

(קִמּוּץ Kimutz, KEY-moots: Minimalism, frugality, thrift; related קוֹמֶץ closed hand/fistful)

[קִנְאָה Kinah, key-NAH: Passion, envy, competition]

11.   COURAGE   Ometz Lev (OH-mets lev)   אֹמֶץ לֵב

Courage, bravery; literally "strength/stubbornness of heart"

(חוּצפָּה Chutzpah, CHOOTS-pah: Boldness, audacity)

[רַךְ לֵבָב Rach Levav, rach lay-VOV: literally "softness/sensitivity of heart"]

12.   DECISIVENESS   Charitzut (char-ee-TSOOT)   חֲרִיצוּת

Decisiveness, assertiveness, industriousness; literally "pointed/sharp"

(שְׁקִידָה Shkida, shkee-DAH: Focus, application, diligence)

[עַצלוּת Atzlut, ahts-LOOT: Inactive, hesitant, not present]

13.   DEVOTION   Chasidut (chah-see-DOOT)   חֲסִידוּת

Devotion, loyalty, commitment

[אֲרָעִי Arai, ah-rah-EE: Casual, occasional, temporary]

14.   FAITH   Emuna (em-oo-NAH)   אֱמוּנָה

Faith, belief, conviction

(בִּטָּחוֹן Bitachon, beet-ah-CHONE: Trust, confidence, assurance)

[סָפֵק Safek, suh-FAKE: doubt, uncertainty, ambivalence; literally "division"]

[חָשְׁדוּת Chashdut, chash-DOOT; Suspicion, wariness, skepticism]

15.   FAITHFULNESS   Ne'emanut (neh-mahn-OOT)   נֶאֱמָנוּת

Faithfulness, trustworthiness, reliability

(קֶבַע Keva, KEH-vuh: Consistency, regularity, permanence; literally "fixed time/place")

[הֲפַכְפַּך Hafachpach, ha-FACH-pach: Changeable, unstable, inconsistent; from  to הפך to turn, reverse]

16.   FLEXIBILITY   Gemesh (GEM-esh)   גֶמֶשׁ

Flexibility, adaptability, resilience

(פְּתִיחוּת Ptichut, pity-CHOOT: Openness, receptivity)

(סַקרָנוּת Sakranut, sock-ron-OOT: Curiousity, inquisitiveness; literally to "look around/explore")

[קַשְׁיוּת Kashyut, kosh-YOOT: Rigidity, stiffness; literally "hardness"]

17.   FREEDOM   Chofesh (CHOE-fesh)   חוֹפֶשׁ

Freedom; literally "exemption"

(דְּרוֹר Dror, DRORE: Liberty; literally "swallow/sparrow")

[חוֹבָה Chovah, choe-VAH: Duty, conscientiousness, obligation; literally "debt"]

18.   GENEROSITY   Nedivut (nid-ee-VOOT)   נְדִיבוּת

Generosity, liberality, voluntary action

(עַיִן יָפָה Ayin Yafa, EYE-een yuh-FUH: Generous and bountiful; abundance mindset; literally "beautiful/good eye" i.e. positive outlook)

[עַיִן־הָרַע Ayin Hara, EYE-een ha-RAH: Stingy and begrudging; poverty mindset; literally "bad eye" i.e. negative worldview]

19.   GOODWILL   Ratzon (ruts-OWN)   רָצוֹן

Goodwill, friendliness, agreeableness

(קַבָּלָה Kabala, kah-ball-AH: Acceptance, welcome)

[הַכנָסַת אוֹרְחִים Hachnasat Orchim, hach-nah-SAHT ore-CHEEM: Hospitality; literally "bringing in travellers"]

[אֵיבָה Eivah, ey-VAH: Animosity, hostility, disagreeableness]

20.   HOLINESS   Kedusha (kid-oo-SHAH)   קְדֻשָּׁה

Holiness, dedication, specialness

(רוּחָנִי Ruchani, roo-chan-EE: spiritual, transcendant; cognitive function = intuitive/abstract)

[גוּפָנִי Gufani, goof-ah-NEE: physical, earthly; literally "bodily/fleshly"; cognitive function = sensory/concrete]

[חִלוֹנִי Chiloni, chee-lo-NEE: Common, worldly, secular]

21.   HONESTY   Yosher (YO-share)   יוֹשֶׁר

Honesty, sincerity; literally "straightforward/direct"

(תָּמִים Tamim, tah-MEEM: literally whole/wholehearted)

[חֲנוּפָה Chanufa, chah-noo-FAH: Pretense, hypocrisy, flattery]

22.   HONOUR   Kavod (kuh-VODE)   כָּבוֹד

Honour, respect, dignity; literally "weight"

(יְקָר Yikar, yee-CAR: literally to regard as "valuable/precious")

[זִלזוּל Zilzul, ZILL-zool: literally to treat as "cheap"]

[לַעַג La'ag, LAH-ahg: to make light/fun of, mock, ridicule]

23.   HOPE  Tikva (teek-VAH)   תִּקְוָה

Hope, expectation, waiting; from קוה to gather/rally to/focus

[יֵאוּשׁ Yeush, yeh-OOSH: Resignation, carelessness, despair; from יאש to let go, give up]

24.   HUMILITY   Anava (ah-nuh-VUH)   עֲנָוָה

Humility, gentleness, meekness; from ענו afflicted

(הַכנָעָה Hachna'a, hach-NAH-ah: Submissive, obedient, co-operative)

(שְׁפַל רוּחַ Shfal Ruach, sh-fall ROO-ach: poor in spirit, literally "low-spirited")

[גַאֲוָה Ga'ava, gah-ah-VAH: Pride, dignity, self-esteem; from גאה raised up/swollen]

25.   JOY  Simcha (SIM-chah)   שִׂמְחָה

Joy, happiness, celebration

(עֲלִיזָה Aliza, all-ee-ZAH: Lightheartedness, playfulness, fun)

[אֵבֶל Evel, EH-vell: Sadness, grief, mourning]

26.   JUSTICE   Tzedek (TSEH-deck)   צֶדֶק

Justice, fairness, objectivity; cognitive function = impersonal thinking

[מַשׂוֹא פָּנִים Maso Panim, muh-SO puh-NEEM: Partiality, bias, subjectivity; literally "face-lifting"]

27.   KINDNESS  Chesed (CHEH-sed)   חֶסֶד

Kindness, sharing, helpfulness

Fourth Sefirah = expansion & unboundedness; love & mercy; right hand pulling closer (opposite Gevurah/Strength)

(טוּב-לֵב Tuv Lev, TOOV-levv: Good-heartedness, benevolence, charitableness)

[אָנוֹכִיוּת Anochiyut, ah-no-chee-OOT: Self-interest, selfishness; literally "Me-ism"]

28.   KNOWLEDGE   Da'at (DAH-aht)   דַּעַת

Knowledge, sensibility, awareness; from ידע to experientially/cognitively know

First Sefirah = כֶּתֶר Keter, KEH-tare: Top of head, superconscious mind, literally "crown" (between Chochmah/Wisdom & Binah/Understanding)

(שֵׂכֶל Sechel, SEH-chel: Intelligence, observation, reflection)

[בַּעֲרוּת Ba'arut, bah-ah-ROOT: Ignorance, unconsciousness; from בער  empty, cleared/removed from existence]

29.   LOVE   Ahava (aha-VAH)   אַהֲבָה

Love, affection, intimacy; from אהב to bring/give to another

(חִבָּה Chibah, chee-BAH: Attachment, closeness)

(יְדִידוּת Yedidut, yid-ee-DOOT: Friendship, endearment)

(רֵעוּת Re'ut, ray-OOT: Companionship, fellowship)

[שִׂנְאָה Sinah, see-NUH: Hatred, distance, non-preference]

[בְּדִידוּת Bedidut, bid-ee-DOOT: Withdrawal, solitude, isolation]

30.   MERCY   Chemlah (chem-LAH)   חֶמְלָה

Mercy, mildness, leniency

(מְחִילָה Mechila, m-chee-LAH: Forgiveness; from מחל to blot out/cancel a debt)

(סְלִיחָה Slicha, slee-CHAH: To excuse/pardon; from סלח to release/sprinkle)

(חֲנִינָה Chanina, chah-NEE-nah: Clemency, amnesty; from חננ gracious)

[הַרשָׁעָה Harsha'ah, har-SHAH-ah: Negative judgement, condemnation]

[נַקמָנִי Nakmani, knock-MAHN-ee: To be resentful, vindictive, vengeful]

31.   MINDFULNESS   Metinut (mitt-ee-NOOT)   מְתִינוּת

Mindfulness, presence, intentionality (literally to "move slowly")

[חִפָּזוֹן Chipazon, chee-pah-ZONE: Hurry, rush, haste]

32.   MODESTY   Tzniut (ts-nee-OOT)   צְנִיעוּת

Modesty, discreteness, privacy

(הַפנָמָה Hafnama, hoff-NOMM-ah: Inwardness, introversion)

[הַחצָנָה Hachtzana, hach-TSAN-ah: Outwardness, extroversion]

[פִּרסוּם Pirsum, peer-SOOM: uncovered, exposed, advertised; from פרס to spread out]

[פַּרהֶסיָה Parhesya, par-HESS-yuh: public, open, outspoken]

33.   ORDERLINESS  Seder (SAY-dare)   סֵדֶר

Orderliness, efficiency, punctuality

[מִקרִי Mikri, meek-REE: Random, accidental, chaotic]

34.   PERSEVERANCE   Netzach (NETS-ach)   נֵצַח

Perseverance, tenacity, grit; literally "to last"

Seventh Sefirah = Victory & success; right leg (opposite Hod)

[זְמַנִי Zmani, z-MAHN-ee: Temporary, passing, for a time]

35.   PATIENCE   Savlanut (sav-lah-NOOT)   סַבְלָנוּת

Patience, endurance, holding space; literally to "bear a burden"

(אֹרֶךְ אַפַּיִם Orech Apaim, OR-ech ah-PIE-eem: Tolerance, forbearance, slowness to anger)

[נִרגָז Nirgaz, near-GAUZE: Easily provoked, upset, volatile]

[כַּעַס Ka'as, KAH-ahs: Irritation, annoyance, anger]

36.   PEACE  Shalom (shuh-LOME)   שָׁלוֹם

Peace, quietness, wholeness

(קוֹר רוּחַ Kor Ruach, core ROO-ach: Calm, composure, literally a "cool spirit")

[בֶּהָלָה Behala, beh-ha-LAH: Fear, alarm, panic]

37.   PLEASANTNESS   Noam (no-AHM)   נֹעַם

Pleasantness, sweetness, niceness

(חֵן Chen, CHANE: Graciousness, charm, charisma)

(סֵבֶר פָּנִים Sever Panim, SEH-vur puh-NEEM: Warmth, affability, geniality; literally "a bright face")

[מְרִירוּת Mrirut; mree-ROOT: Grumpiness, sourness, literally "bitterness"]

38.   RESPONSIBILITY   Acharayut (ach-rye-OOT)   אַחֲרָיוּת

Responsibility, mutuality, legal guarantorship/joint liability; literally to "stand behind/substitute"

[עַצְמָאוּת Atzma'ut, ahts-mah-OOT: Independence, individuality, selfhood]

39.   RIGHTNESS   Tzedaka (ts-DAW-kuh)   צְדָקָה

Moral/ethical/legal rightness, righteousness, the ideal

[מַמָשִׁי Mamashi, mah-muh-SHE: realism, the actual]

40.   SELF-CONTROL   Perishut (pree-SHOOT)   פְּרִישׁוּת

Self-control, discipline, abstinence

(כִּבּוּשׁ הַיֵצֶר Kibbush Hayetzer, key-BOOSH ha-YETS-er: Subjugating the impulse)

[פָּרוּעַ Parua, puh-ROO-ah: Wild, unruly, turbulent; literally "loose/disheveled hair"]

41.   SERENITY   Menucha (min-oo-CHAH)   מְנוּחָה

Serene, carefree, literally "at rest/comfortable"

(שִׁויוֹן Shivyon, sheev-YONE: Equanimity, indifference, nonchalance)

[דְאָגָה Daga, dah-GAH: Worry, care, concern]

[חֲרָדָה Charada, char-ah-DAH: Anxious, uneasy, nervous; literally "trembling"]

42.   STABILITY   Yesod (yee-SODE)   יְסוֹד

Stable, rooted, grounded; literally "foundation"

Ninth Sefirah = Connection & communication; covenant relationship; regenerative organ

[נְתִיקָה Netika, nit-eek-AH: Disconnected, detached, rootless, neurotic]

43.   STRENGTH   Gevura (g-voo-RAH)   גְבוּרָה

Strength, ability, willpower

Fifth Sefirah = restriction & boundaries; severity & justice; left hand pushing away (opposite Chesed/Kindness)

(חוּמרָה Chumra, CHOOM-rah: Strictness, stringency, rigour; from חמר to matter/have weight)

(חַיִל Chayil, CHAI-ul: Capability, valour, heroism)

[חוּלשָׁה Chulsha, chool-SHAH: Weakness, frailty, disability]

44.   THANKFULNESS   Hod (hode)   הוֹד

Thankfulness, acknowledgement, distinction; related to הוֹדָיָה/הוֹדָאָה confession

Eighth Sefirah = splendour, literally "glow/brightness"; concession & submission; left leg (opposite Netzach/Victory)

(הַכָּרָת הטוֹב Hakarat Hatov, ha-kah-RAHT ha-TOVE: Gratitude, appreciation; literally "recognition of the good")

[שָׁוּוּת Shavut, shaw-VOOT: Equality, sameness, nondistinction]

45.   TRUTH   Emet (em-ET)   אֱמֶת

Truth, authenticity, integrity

(דִיוּק Diyuk, dee-OOK: Accuracy, precision, exactitude)

[שֶׁקֶר Sheker, SHEH-care: falsehood, misrepresentation, ambiguity]

46.   UNDERSTANDING   Bina (bee-NAH)   בִּינָה

Understanding, differentiation, deep insight; from בּוּן to split, pierce/penetrate; also בֵּין between

Third Sefirah = Left brain (opposite Chochmah/Wisdom)

(תְבוּנָה Tevunah, t-voo-NAH: Comprehension, analytical thought, reason & intellect)

[פַּשְׁטוּת Pashtut posh-TOOT: Simplicity; dealing with the obvious/פְּשָׁט; surface/פְּשִׁיטָא-level apprehension]

47.   WISDOM   Chochma (CHOCH-mah)   חָכְמָה

Wisdom, learning, scholarship

Second Sefirah = intuitive/revelatory ideas; creative flow state; right brain (opposite Understanding/Binah)

[הֶדיוּט Hedyut, head-YUTE: Blank, undifferentiated state]

48.   ZEAL   Zerizut (zree-ZOOT)   זְרִיזוּת

Zeal, enthusiasm, promptness

[רִפְיוֹן Rifyon, reef-YONE: Relaxed, loose, slack]

See also the simple version of this list